Fiyat : Free Adıyaman dow669
27-09-21 0 Tıklama

Pipe fittings are components used to join pipe sections together with other fluid control products like valves and pumps to create pipelines. The common connotation for the term fittings is associated with the ones used for metal and plastic pipes which carry fluids. There are also other forms of malleable iron pipe fitting that can be used to connect pipes for handrails and other architectural elements, where providing a leak-proof connection is not a requirement. Pipe fittings may be welded or threaded, mechanically joined, or chemically adhered, to name the most common mechanisms, depending on the material of the pipe.

There is some inconsistency in terminology surrounding the terms pipe, tube, and tubing. Therefore, the term Carbon Steel Pipe Fitting will sometimes be mentioned in the context of tubing as well as pipe. While similar in shape to tube fittings, pipe fittings are seldom joined by methods such as soldering. Some methods overlap, such as the use of compression fittings, but where these are commonplace for connecting tubes or tubing, their use in pipe connections is rarer. It suffices to say that while there are general distinctions, the common usage of terms can differ from supplier-to-supplier, although they represent the same items.

In this article, the concentration will be on discussing typical fittings and connection methods associated with rigid pipe and piping, with a limited presentation of the fittings that are associated with flexible tubes, tubing, or hose.

To learn more about the varieties of pipe, consult our related guide to pipe and piping.

Pipe Fittings Explained: Fitting Materials and Manufacturing Processes

Cast and malleable iron

Fittings for cast iron pipe fall under hubless and bell-and-spigot styles. Hubless designs rely on elastomeric couplers that are secured to the outer diameters of the pipe or fitting by clamps, usually a stainless steel band clamp that compresses the elastomeric material and forms a seal. These hubless or no hub designs are sometimes referred to as rubber pipe couplings or rubber plumbing couplings and are especially popular for transitioning from one material to another—from copper to cast iron, for instance. Bell-and-spigot, or sometimes, hub-and-spigot, fittings are joined today primarily with elastomeric gaskets that fit inside the bell and accommodate the insertion of the plain pipe end or fitting. Older systems before the 1950s were caulked using a combination of molten lead and a fibrous material such as oakum. Cast iron pipe is sometimes joined with bolted flanges, or in some cases, mechanical compression connections. Flanged joints employed in underground applications can subject the pipe to settlement stresses unless the pipe is adequately supported.

While there are both malleable iron pipe fittings and ductile iron pipe fittings available, the improved mechanical properties and lower cost of ductile iron is causing a shift towards greater use of that material.

Fittings for steel (aka, “black pipe”) and galvanized pipe as found in residential and commercial plumbing work are generally cast and referred to as “malleable iron fittings." They can be galvanized. Although standards list threaded fittings up to fairly large diameters, these generally are not used today as the threading of large-diameter pipe is considered needlessly difficult.

Steel and steel alloys

Galvanized malleable iron pipe fittings are often extruded or drawn over a mandrel from welded or seamless pipe. In smaller sizes they are often threaded to match threads on the ends of pipe. As sizes and pressures increase, they are often welded in place by either butt-weld or socket-weld methods. Socket-weld fittings, usually forged, are restricted to smaller pipe diameters (up to NPS 4, but usually NPS 2 or smaller) and are available in 3000, 6000, and 9000 class pressure ratings, corresponding to Schedule 40, 80, and 160 pipe. Socket fittings are welded into place with fillet welds, which makes them weaker than butt- welded fittings, but still preferable to threaded fittings for high-end work. The need for an expansion gap in the fitting precludes their use in high-pressure food applications.

Flanges are also used, with the resulting flanged sections of pipe connected via bolts. The use of flanges makes breaking the pipeline feasible so as to enable replacement of valves, etc. Most pipeline equipment such as pumps and compressors are also connected via flanges for this same reason.

Flange fittings are available in a handful of styles, rated by pressure and temperature. These styles include lapped, weld neck, socket weld, ring-type joint, screwed, and slip-on. The threaded flange is suitable only for low- to medium-pressure applications. The other various welded-on flanges permit higher pressures to be used. Lapped flanges are often used where disconnections will be frequent as the flange can spin freely, simplifying bolt-hole alignment. A special case is the so-called blind flange, which is used to seal the end of a pipeline but allow connection to another pipe or piece of equipment later.

Flanges can incorporate several different methods to seal adjoining faces, including O-rings, seal rings, and gaskets. Seal rings provide an especially tight joint and for the same bolt stress applied to a flat-face gasket, can resist a higher pressure.

Primarily, three standards govern pipe flanges. ASME 16.5 defines the ANSI flange, the most commonly-used flange. ASME B16.47 covers two series, A and B, which represent large diameter applications. Series A flanges are heavier and thicker than Series B for the same pressure and size. Series B flanges are normally selected for refurbishment work. ASME B16.1 defines the AWWS flange, but it is only for flanges used in potable-water service at atmospheric temperatures. Then, there is the so-called Industry Standard flange which is not defined by a governing body but instead reflects historical practice. The dimensions for these flanges are covered by ASME B16.1, the standard for 25, 125, and 250 class cast-iron-pipe flange and flange fittings.

Stainless steel pipe fittings can be used for sanitary applications such as food and dairy processing, and are commonly fitted with quick-connect clamps to enable dismantling of the line for internal cleaning. The flanges for these clamping systems are available as weld-on entities or in many instances available as wyes, tees, etc. with the flange integral to the fitting.

Metal pipes sections may also be joined and built up as pipelines using pipe couplings and other standard black malleable iron pipe fitting such as metal pipe end caps or 180-degree pipe elbows.


Aluminum fittings are typically cast. They are available in all the same forms or shapes as steel fittings. Aluminum threaded fittings such as caps or nipples are available, as are fittings that feature a combination of threaded and butt weld connection styles. Socket weld options also exist. Welding of aluminum fittings usually requires a MIG or TIG process.

Aluminum pipe is also a popular choice for use in creating handrails, and a host of fittings for structural applications are available, both weldable and slip on/clamp-on varieties.

Red brass fittings such as brass pipe nipples are available corresponding to pipe diameters, and these are often assembled by soldering or brazing.


Concrete pipe fittings are available in a variety of styles suitable to their application in large civil projects such as storm-water control. Aside from the typical wye connections, specialized fittings include utility hole portals and various styles of vaults. Typical connections use shouldered ends on the fittings which mate with counterparts on the receiving pipes. A rubber gasket provides for a leakproof joint.


Plastic pipe fittings are available in both socket weld (sometimes called solvent weld) and threaded styles, with the former the most common. Socket weld fittings are designed to be welded in place chemically, thereby making installation quick and straightforward to complete. Plastic pipes are usually dry fitted, then marked, as the solvent used to connect them is especially fast-acting. Couplings are typically used to connect and join straight lengths of pipe together.

Fittings are available in standard shapes and styles and with the dimensional size ranges of material common to plastic pipe, including PVC, CPVC, PE, PEX, PP, and ABS.

Common PVC pipe fittings include reducers, elbows, caps, tees, wyes, couplings, unions, and crosses, to name a few. The standard cross-sectional profile for most PVC pipe or tubing fittings is circular, but there are other profile shapes available, such as square PVC fittings. However, these alternative fitting profiles are usually associated with PVC pipe that is designated for structural use, such as fences, railings, or furniture grade use, and are not associated with PVC pipe that is fluid handling applications. Besides PVC, other materials may be used for structural fittings, one example being galvanized pipe railing fittings.

Other PVC fittings include barbed insert designs, which are intended to be used with tubing and are pressed into the tubing and secured with band clamps.

CPCV pipe fittings, as well as ABS pipe fittings (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), also are usually joined with fittings that are solvent welded. Suitable conversion adapters for changing material types, such as from CPVC to brass, are also commonly available.

In some applications using plastic pipe, such as in plumbing for sink drains, certain pipe fixtures such as p-traps may be joined with a threaded connection using nylon washers and a retaining or locking nut. This feature facilitates easy disassembly to clear clogs.

Polyethylene pipe fittings and polypropylene Galavanized carbon steel pipe fitting are usually available with both threaded style or barbed style connections, and socket weld or fused options being also available. Similarly, PDVF pipe fittings also are produced with socket or threaded connections.

Where an air or watertight seal is needed, nylon pipe fittings may be employed and can be used with nylon tube or pipe as well as with other types of plastic or metal pipe.


In some specialized industrial fluid process settings, glass pipe and fittings are employed. Borosilicate glass offers several key advantages over alternative forms of piping systems. The material has high purity, so it will not contaminate process fluids. The natural transparency of glass permits the inspection of the process as needed, while the smooth surface prevents the development of scale or other residues on the interior surface of the pipe.

Laboratory applications may also frequently employ glass tubing and glass profile fittings.

Glass pipe should not be confused with pipes that employ a glass lining, which would be more correctly identified as glass-lined pipe.

Vitrified clay

Fittings for vitrified clay pipe are available in the typical configurations required for sewer installations. Like cast iron, bell-and-spigot is the usual coupling method for these fittings, with an O-ring or gasket used to seal the joint.

Types of Pipe Fittings: Applications and Industries


Threaded fittings follow a standardized format on drawings. The nominal dimension comes before the description. When two or more ends of the fitting are not of the same dimension, the dimension of the run precedes those of the branches, or for reducing fittings, the largest dimension precedes the smallest dimension. Thus, a 1 x 1 x 3/4 Street Tee; a 1 x 1x 3/4 45° Y Bend; a 1 x 3/4 x 1/2 x 1/4 Cross; and so forth. The thread size on threaded fittings will correspond to the nominal pipe size thread as specified by ANSI.

Thread Types

Most pipe applications use threaded fittings whose connections can be typically characterized by one of the following systems:

American National Standard Pipe Threads (NPT)

British Standard Pipe Threads (BSPT)

The principal difference between these two is the taper angle. The NPT system uses a thread taper angle of 60 degrees, whereas the British Standard Pipe Thread (BPST) fittings use a slightly lower taper angle of 55 degrees. In addition to threaded pipe fittings which are tapered, these systems also specify straight pipe thread fittings, which do not rely on a taper to seal against pressure loss or leaks. Generally, a suitable sealant is needed to assure that the seal integrity of the joint or connection is achieved. Most threaded pipe fittings are designed to be right-hand threads, but there are some left-handed (LH) thread options available.

Metric pipe fittings are also available, identified by the nominal outside diameter and the thread pitch. So an M12 x 1.5 metric pipe nipple would have an outside diameter of 12 millimeters and a thread pitch of 1.5 threads per millimeter.

Screw fittings are usually threaded internally. The exception is the street fitting, which, in the case of a simple elbow, has one external thread and one internal thread. Pipes are readily threaded in the field. Joining threaded pipes and fittings can be aided by Teflon tape or pipe compound. When applying the compound, it is recommended that it be placed on the external thread only, to avoid introducing any impurities into the pipeline during joint assembly.

Piping layouts are generally one-line or two-line drawings, depending on the complexity of the installation. Where clearances are tight,and for many shop-fabricated pipelines, the two-line drawing is used, which shows the pipe dimensionally to scale. For simpler installations, the one-line drawing suffices, with fittings, valves, etc. designated symbolically. Pipeline drawings are sometimes shown as “developed,” which assumes the vertical pipes are revolved into the horizontal plane, or vice versa, to allow the entire piping system to be shown in the same plane.


These small, weldable branch fittings reinforce the pipe where a hole is made, eliminating the need to add reinforcing. Different forms of these fittings are available under various trademarks, covering butt- and socket-welded styles, thread-on varieties, as well as some special designs which enable connections at elbows, etc.

Welding process

Pipe ends and flanges are prepared for butt welding according to pipe-wall thickness. For walls 3/4 inch thick or less, the walls are beveled to an included angle of 70° and a 3/16 inch gap is left between them. The welder makes a root pass, a fill pass (or passes), and a capping pass, often varying the filler material between passes. For larger thickness, the pipe is tapered to a similar angle but only partway up the wall. In addition, a small relief angle is ground on the inside wall, serving as the location for a backing ring. Socket welds are generally used for thinner-walled pipes. Welding procedures are spelled out by an engineer in Weld Procedure Specifications and the welder making the weld will be certified for the specific process. Pipes sometimes must be preheated prior to welding and heat-treated after to relieve heat stress.

The necessity of proper pipe-end preparation and the need for careful fit-up prior to joining butt-welded fittings makes the use of socket-weld fittings appealing. No bevel is required for socket-weld fittings and the socket itself serves to align the pipe. About the only special requirement is that the pipe must be backed out of the fitting slightly to allow for expansion during the weld.

Prefabrication of pipeline sections, called “spools,” is often done indoors where automation can be applied to the fabrication process. Pipes joints can be rolled on slow turning machines to bring the work to the welder. Robot welders can be used. Techniques such as submerged-arc welding can be applied for productivity gains.

There are non-welded pipe fittings or no weld pipe connectors available as alternatives to the traditionally welded piping systems. Using a combination of swaged mechanical fittings along with the cold bending of pipe or tubing, this solution eliminates the stresses to the pipeline from the welding operation, reduces costs, and can provide for a modular system that is easier to disassemble or modify as needed.

Plastic pipe, and HDPE pipe, in particular, can be joined by heat welding, sometimes referred to as electrofusion welding. Pipes can be butt-welded or socket-welded. This is a fairly common practice for large-diameter HDPE pipeline installations. A range of specialized equipment is available for producing these welds.


Related ads

A nasty pandemic problem: More flushed wipes are clogging pipes, sending sewage into homes

A nasty pandemic problem: More flushed wipes are clogging pipes, sending sewage into homes Some wastewater utilities say they are facing a nasty pandemic problem: More disposable wipes being flushed down toilets are clogging pipes, jamming pumps and… Adıyaman

Injection molding

It is usually slow and inefficient to mold thermoplastics using the compression molding techniques described above. In particular, it is necessary to cool a thermoplastic part before removing it from the mold, and this requires that the mass of metal… Adıyaman

How Cement Mixers Work

In addition to the mixing energy applied to the fresh concrete (i.e. shearing during mixing), the shear history after mixing is also important. This applies especially to binder rich concretes like the different types of high performance concrete (HPC).… Adıyaman

Why seamless steel pipes cannot be completely replaced by welded steel pipes

Why seamless steel pipes cannot be completely replaced by welded steel pipes The welded steel pipe has won praises for its uniform wall thickness and low price. So, can seamless Steel Pipes be replaced by welded steel pipes? The answer: NO… Adıyaman

What is an Isolation Gown?

What is an Isolation Gown? What is an Isolation Gown? Isolation gowns are examples of medical protective equipment used in health care settings. They are used to protect the wearer from the spread of infection or illness if the wearer comes… Adıyaman

Here's the Truth About Wood Veneers

Here's the Truth About Wood Veneers When you learn that a piece of furniture has a veneer, does it make you cringe a little? Admittedly us, too. But wood veneers, in fact, are a traditional and structurally significant aspect of furniture-making… Adıyaman

Dogs and the Pool: What You Need to Know

Many dogs love to go swimming, especially in the heat of summer. If you have your own Pet Care Equipment you might have considered letting your water-loving dog swim in it. Allowing your dog to swim in the pool is not an entirely bad idea, but there… Adıyaman

Covid-19: Disinfection Robots Are Being Deployed

Covid-19: Disinfection Robots Are Being Deployed Robots using different technologies are being deployed on the frontline in the fight against Covid-19. Among these robots, disinfection robots are of particular interest. A division of Siemens… Adıyaman

A brief history of blood collection systems and devices

Before the modern vacuum tube, blood collection tubes and other devices were difficult and imprecise. Etched lines in borosilicate glass tubes reflected the amount of blood the phlebotomist needed to collect. Using a disposable venous blood… Adıyaman

How to start a rice milling business

Do you want to know the steps to setting up a rice milling business? Do you want to know how to get your own custom package rice product to sell? This article will show you all the steps involve.In our earlier article, we have discussed in details how to… Adıyaman

How to buy your first disposable diaper machine.

Every disposable diaper manufacturer knows that the most difficult machine to buy is always the first one. Based on their earned experience with this first machine, diaper manufacturers become more knowledgeable and more cautious when buying their second… Adıyaman

Garden Hoses: What To Know Before You Buy

Garden Hoses: What To Know Before You Buy Garden Hoses: What To Know Before You Buy Hose for gardening don't last forever. When you're in the market for a new one, these tips will help you make an informed purchase. Your garden… Adıyaman

What are Precision Stamping Machines?

What are Precision Stamping Machines? Precision metal stamping is a process for punching markings, three-dimensional shapes, or other designs into material surfaces, and precision stamping machines exert a high level of force to engrave dies and… Adıyaman

What is oxygen plant?

Constant and Readily Available Supply The Medical oxygen Plant allows users to generate their own oxygen for their medical-grade requirements like EMS (Emergency Medical Services), Ambulance, Fire Departments, Small Hospitals, Clinics, Nursing… Adıyaman

mıtsubıshı - canter - Fuso - FE - 859 E Çıkma Boğaz

mıtsubıshı - Canter - Fuso Mıtsubıshı - Canter - Fuso - Orjinal - Çıkma - Yedek - Parçaları .tr Türkiye'de ki çıkma parça tedarik merkezi ÖTA Geri Dönüşüm merkezimizden Kontrolleri yapılmış tamamen orjinal Çıkma yedek parça… Adıyaman

What Are the Applications of LED Downlights in Homes and Businesses?

LED downlight, also known as can lights or recessed lights, is embedded into the ceiling to become a seamless accessory in any room. While you might be fond of this sleek look, you may not know all of the factors that contribute to creating perfect… Adıyaman

A Brief History of Men's Fashion

We’ve said it time and time again, men's wear is ruled by history and tradition. Every person in menswear (designer, stylist, editor, etc) has taken inspiration from the past at one time or another. And no era has been overlooked.… Adıyaman

The history of the shopping trolley

The history of the shopping trolley The history of the shopping trolley A trip to the supermarket wouldn’t be the same without the shopping trolley, a utilitarian piece of design that allows us to buy more than we can physically… Adıyaman

How It Works

How It Works: A Lean, Mean Nail Gun Pneumatic nailers can slash the time it takes to fasten everything from window trim to roof rafters. The basic guts of the tool haven’t changed since the 1960s: Compressed air pushes a piston that drives a rod,… Adıyaman

Predicting the Madden 22 Scores for the Panthers' Offensive Starters

Though the launch of Madden 22 is nevertheless a few of weeks absent , we figured it would be pleasurable towards consider a visual appearance at how each individual novice upon the Carolina Panthers offense will be ranked. With 6 newbies necessary in… Adıyaman

The Best Window Curtains

The Best Window Curtains, According to Interior Designers You may not appreciate the importance of window dressings — which, in addition to looks, provide privacy and block light — until you move into a place with naked windows. Luckily, adding curtains… Adıyaman

What is oxygen plant?

What is oxygen plant? Constant and Readily Available Supply The Medical oxygen Plant allows users to generate their own oxygen for their medical-grade requirements like EMS (Emergency Medical Services), Ambulance, Fire Departments, Small… Adıyaman


THE FACTS ABOUT PAINT PROTECTION FILM THE FACTS ABOUT PAINT PROTECTION FILM Paint protection film is a modern marvel. It’s a thin but exceptionally durable polymer or polyurethane film that is the ultimate layer of protection. Not only does… Adıyaman

Coronavirus Face Masks & Protection FAQs

The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as those who are not fully vaccinated. The CDC also recommends that masks and physical… Adıyaman

Introduction to Pressure Seal valves

Pressure seal construction is adopted for Valves for high pressure service, typically in excess of above 170 bar. The unique feature about the pressure seal Bonnet is that the body-Bonnet joints seals improves as the internal pressure in the Valve… Adıyaman

What Are Our Clothes Made From?

What Are Our Clothes Made From? Clothes today are made from a wide range of different materials. Traditional materials such as cotton, linen and leather are still sourced from plants and animals. But most clothes are more likely to be made of… Adıyaman

Wide Application of High Shear Emulsifying Machine

High shear emulsifying machinef is our new product with advanced technology from home and abroad, which strictly complies with the GMP requirement. It is widely used for mixing, dispersing, shearing and homogenizing all kinds of viscous liquid and pastes… Adıyaman

Are Woven Polypropylene Bags Waterproof?

Are pp woven bags waterproof? As far as the woven bag itself is concerned, because the woven bag is made of warp and weft tapes, there is only overlap between the tapes, which does not have sealing property. Therefore, the liquid will be left through the… Adıyaman

How are hybrid inverters used in solar projects?

How are hybrid inverters used in solar projects? How are hybrid inverters used in solar projects? This paper proposes a new configuration of a single-phase hybrid inverter with an integrated battery energy storage, which is suitable for… Adıyaman

Development of a Wireless Temperature Sensor Using Polymer-Derived Ceramics

A temperature sensor has been developed using an embedded system and a sensor head made of polymer-derived SiAlCN ceramics (PDCs). PDC is a promising material for measuring high temperature and the embedded system features low-power consumption, compact… Adıyaman

Report this ad

Türkiye'nin Çıkma Yedek Parça ilanları burada , Çıkma Yedek Parça, Aracınızın aynı araçtan çıkma yedek parçaları burada

Subscribe in a reader